Cannabis is known for its anti-inflammatory effects and its action on specific migraines or certain neurological diseases. As the action of the endocannabinoid system is complex, certain pathologies such as migraines require different dosages and compositions of phytocannabinoids to act effectively.
Basically , the endocannabinoid system is composed of two main receptors: receptors CB1 and CB2. CB1, the best known, acts more on the expression of neurological functions. While CB2 is associate with the regulation of the immune system. However, a third receptor plays an important role in global equilibrium, GPR55, and acts more as a decelerator of the action of the first two receptors.
Reducing receptor activity
So , it may be useful to affect the activity of endocannabinoid receptors. The activity of the CB1 receptors needs to be balanced. CB1 is activated by cannabinol homologs, such as THC, or endogenous cannabinoids, such as 2-AG and anandamide.
Substances that lower the activity of this receptor, called reverse agonists, are not known in nature, and synthetic cannabinoids are known to cause problems, such as depression. Safely lowering the activity of CB1 is more complicated than activating it. However, THC and anandamide can indirectly counteract their effects on CB1 receptors with GPR55.
Instead of producing depressive effects as it does via CB1 receptors, THC increases excitatory functions, and thus inflammation, by activating the third cannabinoid receptor.
CBD, CB2 & the relationship with GPR55
As a GPR55 antagonist, CBD can safely counter THC-induced inflammation and block THC side effects such as anxiety or paranoia.
CBD also , inhibits the transmitters that transmit nerve signals via GPR55 antagonism, which would also promote many therapeutic responses. This effect indeed is almost identical to the effect of anandamide on the CB1, CBD and anandamide receptors facilitating the effects of cannabis on inflammation and pain.
CBD can, however, cause eye pressure, which can be attributed, in part, to GPR55. 55 THC may prevent this by inhibiting different variations of inflammatory agents via another target of the endocannabinoid system.
Moreover , the effects of CBD appear to be more balanced by CB2 agonists, which is consistent with the antagonism of CBD on GPR55. Terpenes such as caryophyllene or the endocannabinoid 2-AG also help to balance the immune system by inhibiting imbalance factors without affecting other functions of the CB1 receptor.
When it comes to using CBD for migraines or even glaucoma, generally a small dose of THC will add a layer of constrictive inflammation and moderate tissue regeneration by softening the immune system’s response. New tissue can thus grow back without the risk of proliferation of mutations or new eye inflammation. For example, caryophyllene can help promote this function by turning off CB2 receptors.