All plants are classified according to a system that dates back several hundred years.
Cannabis sativa L. is the binomial name of the cannabis plant, which belongs to the Cannabinaceae or Cannabaceae family, and includes other plants such as hops or hackberry. In practice, there are two main subspecies of Cannabis: Sativa and Indica. Other variations exist in the form of hybrids (a plant created by crossing Indica and Sativa) or subspecies such as Cannabis Ruderalis, which is less widespread and is mainly used to create auto-flowering cannabis varieties. Let us, therefore, consider the differences between Sativa and Indica cannabis varieties:
· Geographical origins
· Appearance and size
Difference between Indica and Sativa: geographical origins
Cannabis sativa varieties originally grow around the equator and can be found in Colombia, Mexico, Thailand, and several African countries.
Indica cannabis varieties grow at high altitudes, mainly in countries known for hashish cultivation such as Morocco, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Turkey.
Difference between Indica and Sativa: appearance and size
Sativa plants will always be taller than their Indica sisters. A Sativa plant can reach 1m80 while the Indica rarely exceeds 90cm. This difference is largely due to the geographical origins of each of the two subspecies. Sativa heads are often longer and less dense. They grow on the branches of the plant rather than at the base of each node. Sativa leaves are generally long and thin. Sativa has evolved according to the particular climate around the equator (short and regular periods of sunshine), while Indica has not had to struggle to capture the sun, giving them a bush appearance. Sativa flowers generally grow between the nodes of each branch, which tends to give them a cluster shape and a certain density. The leaves of Indica plants are shorter and wider than those of Sativa.
Difference between Indica and Sativa: effects
In terms of therapeutic cannabis, Indica varieties have the best analgesic effects, while Sativa has a higher THC/ cannabidiol ratio. Sativa promotes brain activity, while Indica produces a more relaxed effect, calming stress and mood. For recreational consumers, the difference between Indica and Sativa will depend on the type of sensation. Sativa often provides a high brain and stimulating and energizing effects, while Indica produces a body stone and a feeling of relaxation. Sativa is best suited for use during the day or in the evening, while Indica goes well with a quiet evening, alone, with friends or lovers.
Difference between Indica and Sativa: aromas
Sativa has a wide range of aromas, from fruity to ammonia flavors. These varieties are more floral and tropical. Indica is very often fruity, as in the different strains of Kush, but can have a more woody smell like the different varieties of Skunk and hybrid Indica.
Difference between Indica and Sativa: flowering
Sativa generally takes longer to flower than Indica, especially because the feet are larger. Although the Sativa varieties marketed today were bred to flower around 10 weeks, some landraces still take their time, at more than 18 weeks, and much more for the Sativa varieties of zamal. Indica’s flower after 8 to 10 weeks, while Sativa can flower in twice as long, although for both species inputs of specific inputs can accelerate flowering.
Difference between Indica and Sativa: yield
In general, Indica producing plants produce more than Sativa. In practice, some varieties of Indica such as OG Kush produce significantly less than their counterparts.
Indica has historically been used to make the most famous hashes: malana cream or charas.